Risk Factors

- being the victim of sexual, physical, or emotional abuse or trauma,

- lack of security and sense of belonging,

- isolated and disconnected from social support structures,

- lack of family and social bonds, dysfunctional family (violence, neglect, substance misuse),

- drug and alcohol misuse,

- FASD/FAE or learning disorders,

- dropping out of school,

- low self-esteem

- living in rural and remote communities,

- poverty (and increasing feminization of poverty),

- socioeconomic marginalization,

- youth unemployment/homelessness,

- leaving home at an early age,


- Indigenous, immigrant, refugee youth.